The report, Bike for the Future, is flagged as a strategic plan to get "more people cycling, more safely, more often."
The plan focusses on the 40 percent of car trips which are less than three miles, and could easily be done by bike.
"The benefits would be enormous, both for individuals and society as a whole: less congestion, pollution and obesity, and better health," said NCSB chair, Philip Darnton.
The Board recommends that government departments such as health, education, and culture, media and sport should work more closely together to oversee the funding and management of new investment in cycling.
"The aim is to capitalise on the benefits not just for transport but for a range of key government programmes - including the recently announced initiative from the Prime Minister on global warming," said Darnton.
The strategic action plan is to be presented to ministers shortly.
"It will hopefully lead to a new and much better structure for the promotion of cycling by the government," said Darnton.
Other members of the NCSB include John Grimshaw MBE, director and chief engineer of Sustrans; journalist Christian Wolmar; and Chris Boardman MBE, former professional cyclist and advisor to British Cycling's World Class Performance Plan
A PDF of Bike for the Future can be downloaded here: